California, Climate Change, and the Commerce Clause: Ninth Circuit Expresses Skepticism in Argument Involving Low-Carbon Fuel Standard
The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit last week heard oral argument in a challenge brought by a number of out-of-state biofuel producers who assert that California's Low-Carbon Fuel Standard ("LCFS") violates the Commerce Clause of the U.S. Constitution because it discriminates against out-of-state producers and artificially favors in-state producers. The three-judge panel appeared, at times, perplexed, and at other times, to be highly skeptical of the LCFS.
For example, Senior Judge Dorothy Nelson, citing comments from California officials stating the LCFS will increase employment and tax revenue in California, asked, "Isn't this unambiguous evidence that the board was motivated by protectionism?" Similarly, observing that electricity is a major factor in the carbon intensity calculations used by California and that biofuels producers have no control over how the electricity they use is produced, "isn't this the equivalent of discriminating against producers with the 'dirtiest' electricity," who are generally located in the Midwest. Similarly, Judge Mary Murguia, seemed particularly troubled with LCFS regulations that, on their face, apply a higher carbon intensity score to Midwestern biofuels producers than to California producers. The third judge, Senior Judge Betty Fletcher, did not participate heavily in the argument, but observed that she followed the argument closely and, found some of the answers provided by the attorneys "very satisfactory, others not so much." An audio tape of the argument is available here.
(Sadly, Judge Fletcher passed away just five days after the argument. A native of Tacoma, Judge Fletcher had a highly successful legal career here in Seattle, where, among other achievements, she became the first female partner at a major Pacific Northwest law firm. She was appointed to the Ninth Circuit by President Carter in 1979. She will be missed.)