Results tagged “Arkansas Fish & Game” from GTH Energy & Natural Resources Law Blog

Floodgates Open to Takings Claims? Supreme Court Finds That Even Temporary Flooding From Government-Owned Dams May Constitute a "Taking"

December 10, 2012

As reported in our posting of November 2, the U.S. Supreme Court this term is considering two cases of particular significance for dam operators. The first, Arkansas Fish & Game Commission v. United States, was decided last week. The court rejected the proposition that no Fifth Amendment taking can occur from temporary flooding caused by a government-owned dam. This result will give little comfort to dam operators since takings claims will now be decided on a fact-intensive balancing test rather than on the basis of a per se rule that takings can arise only from permanent or predictable periodic flooding.

The case arose from seasonal flooding at the Donaldson Black River Wildlife Management Area ("WMA") in northwest Arkansas caused the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' Clearwater Dam, located 115 miles upstream in Missouri. In the 1990s, the Corps began to deviate from its accepted operating plan for the Clearwater reservoir in order to reduce damage to crops upstream from the dam. Arkansas sued the Corps, asserting that deviations from operating rules increased flooding in the WMA, damaging hardwoods and reducing the value of the habitat in the WMA. The claim succeeded in the lower court, but the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit, in a split en banc decision, reversed, holding that the flooding was only temporary and therefore could not support a takings claim. This holding was primarily based on Supreme Court takings precedents from 1924 and 1917 involving dams.

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Dams in the Supreme Court: Two Cases To Watch This Term

November 2, 2012

Two cases of great importance to operators of dams, storm sewers, and other water works will be decided in the U.S. Supreme Court's current term. The first, Arkansas Fish & Game Commission v. United States (No. 11-597), involves a takings claim for flooding caused by a U.S. Army Corps of Engineers ("Corps") dam. The second, Los Angeles County Flood Control District v. Natural Resources Defense Council (No. 11-460), addresses whether a the operator of a municipal storm sewer system violated its permit under the Clean Water Act ("CWA") where its flood control structures channeled an already-polluted river, passing the polluted water through a man-made structure, but without adding new pollution.

In Arkansas Fish & Game, the state successfully asserted a claim that periodic flooding from a Corps dam, which caused significant damage at a wildlife refuge downstream from the dam, constituted a compensable "taking" under the Fifth Amendment of the U.S. Constitution. The property at issue, the Donaldson Black River Wildlife Management Area ("WMA") in northwest Arkansas, contains rare and important bottomland hardwood habitat. It is located approximately 115 miles downstream from the Corps' Clearwater Dam in Missouri, which was constructed in the 1940s as part of efforts to control flooding in the Mississippi Basin. In the 1990s, the Corps began to deviate from its accepted operating plan for the Clearwater reservoir in order to reduce damage to crops upstream from the dam. Arkansas claimed that the deviations from operating rules increased flooding in the WMA, damaging hardwoods and reducing the value of the habitat in the WMA.

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