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Pot, Power & Pollution: The Overlooked Impacts of Marijuana Legalization on Utilities and the Environment

April 17, 2014

Last month, Washington issued its first license for a legal marijuana grow operation under Initiative 502 ("I-502"), the marijuana legalization measure adopted by Washington voters in November 2012. A wave of additional operations will follow, as about 2,800 producers have applied for licenses to grow marijuana. While the implications of I-502 for the criminal justice system, land use, taxation and many other issues have been widely debated, the potentially significant changes in electricity and water use that are likely to follow from I-502's implementation have received almost no scrutiny. Nor have the important implications for environmental protection. Given the stakes, Washington utilities and environmental regulators should pay close attention to I-502 and the ongoing process of implementing the initiative.

At the outset, it is important to understand that the United States already produces huge amounts of cannabis. Official estimates suggest that U.S. production was somewhere in the range of 10,000 to 24,000 metric tons in 2001, making it America's largest cash crop by value. A more recent study suggests that production may actually be far higher - 69,000 metric tons. Given that marijuana production generally remains illegal, these estimates are highly uncertain. But there is little doubt that, as marijuana production comes out of the shadows and into the realm of legitimate business, power and water utilities will need to confront a number of serious and complex issues.

Implications for Electric Utilities
For electric utilities, legalization is a major concern because cannabis production, which generally relies on energy-intensive indoor growing operations, uses huge amounts of electricity. One recent study estimates that marijuana production may account for as much as 1% of the nation's entire electric consumption, accounting for a total bill of approximately $6 billion. In California, the numbers are even higher. Marijuana production in that state is estimated to use 3% of all electricity consumed there, equivalent to 9% of all residential electricity use.


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I-937 Updates: New Legislation and New Administrative Rules May Alter Washington's Renewable Portfolio Standard

April 7, 2014

As a result of both legislative and administrative action, several notable changes to Washington's Initiative 937 ("I-937", also known as the Washington Energy Independence Act) are on the horizon. While rejecting large-scale reform, the legislature made significant course corrections related to treatment of conservation and conduit hydro projects under the initiative. Those changes, and possibly several others, will be addressed in ongoing rulemaking proceedings at the Washington Department of Commerce and Washington Utilities & Transportation Commission ("UTC").

Two changes to I-937 were enacted in the 2014 session of the Washington Legislature. First, HB 1643, popularly known as the "conservation smoothing" legislation, allows utilities that achieve conservation in excess of specified targets to credit the excess toward future compliance periods, within limits. As originally enacted by the voters in 2006, I-937 required all covered utilities to obtain all "achievable cost-effective conservation." This mandate was carried out in a two-year process, which requires utilities first to identify conservation targets, then to adopt a plan to achieve those targets. In carrying out this mandate, many utilities, especially smaller utilities, found that conservation is not achieved in neat blocks, but instead is often achieved in major increments that may exceed specific biennial conservation targets. In these circumstances, I-937 both denied utilities the benefit of conservation achieved above biennial targets and created a perverse incentive to delay these conservation achievements.

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Western PURPA War Update: Retreats, Advances, But Little Clarity

February 4, 2014

As we discussed last summer, the expansion of renewable energy generation, especially wind generation, has produced an escalating conflict between the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission ("FERC") and several Western states over the application of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act ("PURPA"). In recent months, at least one major conflict has been resolved, while other conflicts continue to develop. While future developments may depend upon whether newly-nominated FERC Chairman Norman Bay adopts the aggressive enforcement policy of his predecessor, Jon Wellinghoff, recent action provides some hints as to the future legal landscape.

PURPA is a 1978 law that, among other requirements, mandates that utilities purchase power produced by smaller renewable generators. Recent conflicts have arisen over PURPA's basic mandate, which requires utilities to purchase power from PURPA-eligible generators, called "Qualifying Facilities" or "QFs", at avoided-cost rates. Conflicts have also arisen from efforts to square PURPA with recent industry developments, such as ownership of Renewable Energy Credits and integration of variable renewable resources..

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Washington Supreme Court Limits Recreational Immunity Statute

January 30, 2014

In a decision of great importance to major Washington landowners, including local governments, major private landowners such as forest products companies, and operators of water projects, the Washington Supreme Court today issued an opinion that may limit the state's recreational immunity statute. As a result of the decision, the immunity conferred by the statute is clouded in mixed-use situations, where access to land is granted for both recreational and other uses, such as transportation. Camicia v. Howard S. Wright Constr. Co., No. 85583-8 (issued Jan. 30, 2014).

First passed in 1967, the recreational immunity statute is intended to encourage landowners to open lands, as well as waterways associated with hydroelectric projects and similar facilities, to recreational users. The statute encourages recreational access by immunizing those landowners from liability for unintentional accidents where no fee is charged for recreational access.

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"The California ISO-PacifiCorp Energy Imbalance Market Experiment: Can Public Power Avoid Assimilation?" Eric Christensen Publishes Article in January NWPPA Bulletin

January 28, 2014

We're proud to announce that GTH partner Eric Christensen has published an article in the January 2014 Northwest Public Power Association Bulletin. The article is available electronically here. We've inserted the text below:

Regulatory Update: The California ISO-PacifiCorp Energy Imbalance Market Experiment: Can Public Power Avoid Assimilation?
By Eric Christensen, Partner Gordon Thomas Honeywell

PacifiCorp and the California ISO are now cooperating to create an Energy Imbalance Market ("EIM") encompassing their collective service territories, which stretch from Utah to Southern California. For public power managers who follow "Star Trek", this development bring visions of the Borg, perhaps the most frightening foe dreamed up by the imaginative writers of "Star Trek: The Next Generation." The Borg is a half-technological, half-biological alien race with a collective hive-mind. With machine-like implacability, the Borg assimilates all other intelligent species, turning them into cyborgs without independent thought. When the heroic Captain Picard is captured and assimilated, and programmed to instruct the human race "you will be assimilated, resistance is futile," all hope appears lost. Development of the EIM forces public power to consider whether assimilation into the ISO and its mind-numbingly complex system of regulations and "structured" markets, is inevitable, whether resistance is futile, and what can be done to protect core public power values.

THE PACIFICORP-ISO PROPOSAL
As envisioned in the PacifiCorp-ISO scheme, the EIM would create a short-term market for balancing and regulating reserves, scheduled every 15 minutes and dispatched at 5-minute intervals. The core functions of the EIM would be provided by the ISO's automated 15-minute market. Dispatch would be optimized across the footprint of the Balancing Area Authorities ("BAAs") participating in the EIM, principally as a means of optimizing the use of balancing reserves to integrate wind generation and other intermittent resources. The PacifiCorp-ISO EIM is designed to allow other BAAs to easily join, with reduced balancing costs held out as an incentive. It is almost certain that NV Energy, the IOU serving Nevada, will join the EIM once regulators approve its sale to Warren Buffet's business empire, making it part of the same corporate family as PacifiCorp. It is easy to anticipate that other BAAs in the West might follow suit. The assimilation of BAAs across the West makes the assimilation of public power seem all the more inevitable.

It now appears nearly certain we will see some form of EIM in the West. Public power should take proactive steps to prevent assimilation, to achieve a peaceful co-existence with the EIM, and, ideally, to move the EIM in a direction that benefits public power. To achieve these goals, public power will need to engage actively in the ongoing PacifiCorp-ISO process and the parallel Northwest Power Pool process. Public power should also consider creative structural solutions that can both insulate us from the problems of an EIM and allow us greater control of our own destiny.

POTENTIAL PROBLEMS FOR PUBLIC POWER
Assimilation by the ISO creates a number of problems for public power. These include, for example, "mission creep," the concern that an EIM would establish a beachhead for a much intrusive entity, such as a west-wide RTO long opposed by public power. Similarly, there is concern that the EIM will lead toward substantially increased regulation by the Federal Energy Commission ("FERC"), particularly over the Bonneville Power Administration.

Two examples demonstrate the potential problems. First, Southern California public power entities operating within the California ISO have been subject to FERC regulation of their transmission rates where it was adjudged that their rates were an element of the ISO's FERC-jurisdictional rates. Second, attempts by both Maryland and New Jersey to deal with the inadequacies of the PJM market, which lacks a coherent mechanism for load-serving entities to secure long-term power supplies, have recently been struck down by federal courts as inconsistent with FERC's exclusive jurisdiction over the wholesale power market. Thus, experience with other RTO/ISO markets suggests that expansion of the EIM to a west-side RTO could create both greater FERC jurisdiction over western public power entities and undermine the ability of public power to secure long-term power supplies. These outcomes are, of course, antithetical to public power's core value of local control and its primary mission of assuring reliable and economical power to public power customer-owners.

The problem of expanded FERC jurisdiction is, in light of recent events, a particular concern with respect to Bonneville Power Administration ("BPA"). If BPA joins the EIM as an active participant, FERC may well assert that the rates it charges for power dispatched into the EIM are a component of FERC-jurisdictional wholesale rates charged by the EIM. This would subject BPA to greater FERC jurisdiction, shifting the focus of control over the agency toward Washington, DC, and away from the Pacific Northwest. And it may provide a lever for FERC to exert greater pressure on BPA to move toward a west-wide RTO.

As discussed in my May 2013 Bulletin article, the risks of mission creep and expanded FERC jurisdiction can be limited by including specific safeguards in the documents governing the EIM. In this article, I propose additional safeguards, including a publics-only EIM and additional measures that should be included in the EIM's governing documents.

STRUCTURAL SOLUTION: A PUBLICS-ONLY EIM
By moving aggressively to create its own EIM with membership limited to public power entities, public power can create a structural mechanism to limit both damaging proposals from the EIM and FERC jurisdiction over BPA and other publicly-owned utilities. Fundamentally, the proposed structure would bring together public power utilities, including but not necessarily limited to publics operating BAAs, to pool regulation and balancing reserves and to interact with the PacifiCorp-ISO EIM.
A publics-only EIM would have several advantages over an EIM with mixed public and IOU participation. Perhaps most importantly, the publics-only structure would create an attractive option for BPA, capturing most or all of the advantages that an EIM might create for BPA, but creating a bulwark against expanded FERC jurisdiction over the agency.

In addition, the publics-only EIM would keep public power's fate squarely in its own hands. Because FERC generally has no authority over public power, a publics-only EIM will be able to resist top-down mandates from FERC. If FERC attempts to force a publics-only structure into an expanded mandatory market along the lines of a West-wide RTO, the publics can resist without the same fear of regulatory consequences that would be inherent in an EIM where FERC-jurisdictional IOUs are participants.

Similarly, when faced with the question of adding new functions that would move the EIM toward a full-scale RTO, a publics-only RTO can consider adding new functions on the basis of their own merits, without concern that mandates from FERC would force their hand. Thus, this structure allows public power greater control of its own fate, limiting the extent to which FERC can use its expansive jurisdiction over IOUs as a lever to force its will on the West.

ADDITIONAL GOVERNANCE MEASURES
As currently planned, the EIM will operate using the ISO's 15-minute market system. This creates the danger that the ISO will become the default operator of the EIM across the West. With this underlying market structure, ensuring that public power, especially public power entities operating outside California, have an adequate voice in the EIM's operation becomes a challenge.

PacifiCorp and the ISO propose a "Transition Committee" to move toward an independent governing structure for the EIM, but it is not clear the proposed structure would result in fully representative governance. The Transition Committee would be composed of seven members, but, apart from EIM participants, there is no requirement that any particular segment of the industry be represented. This is particularly a problem for public power utilities without BAAs, which are likely to ultimately foot the bill for EIM costs but will not directly participate. And the long-term governance structure of the EIM is still to be developed. This process merits public power's careful attention.

In addition, public power should insist on a "Circuit Breaker" that would require the EIM to suspend operations if there are indications that the market is being manipulated or is otherwise functioning improperly. Circuit breakers of this type are a common feature of most commodity markets. When there are indications that a market participant is attempting to "corner" the market in particular commodity or is otherwise manipulating market prices or outcomes, the circuit breaker kicks in and trading is suspended in that market until appropriate measures are put in place to end the market abuse and make whole those market participants who have suffered from the manipulation.

A circuit breaker is particularly important for the EIM because credible concerns have been raised about market power in the transmission markets covered by the EIM and because the cost-benefit analyses performed so far suggest, at best, modest benefits for the EIM. It is simply not worth the risk of repeating the disaster of the 2000-01 Enron crisis in order to obtain these relatively modest benefits. A circuit breaker would provide market participants with the kind of immediate protection that was lacking in 2000-01, when Western public power waited for more than a year for FERC to take meaningful action to end widespread manipulation and dysfunction of the power markets, which cost hundreds of thousands their jobs and reduced regional economic output by tens of billions of dollars.

CONCLUSION
When all hope of avoiding assimilation by the Borg appears lost, Star Fleet throws all its remaining ships into a blockade around the inner Solar System. With some clever last-minute thinking by the crew of the U.S.S. Enterprise, the Borg's invasion is stopped and the human race is saved from assimilation. In the same way, the measures suggested here can create a blockade that protects core public power values, and prevents assimilation into FERC and the ISO.

Department of Energy Names Elliot Mainzer Permanent BPA Administrator

January 27, 2014

Perhaps signaling the beginning of the end of the turmoil that has gripped the Bonneville Power Administration ("BPA") since then-Administrator Bill Drummond was abruptly suspended last July, the U.S. Department of Energy today named Elliot Mainzer as the new BPA Administrator. By making Mr. Mainzer's appointment permanent -- he was named Acting Administrator amidst the chaos of Mr. Drummond's sudden suspension -- DOE put in place a critical piece of the puzzle that is BPA's future. The DOE appointment implicitly endorses the course Mr. Mainzer has set for BPA to navigate the problems that led to Mr. Drummond's removal, and may therefore signal a return to normalcy for the agency. With the explicit endorsement of key political figures and interest groups, Mr. Mainzer is now appears well-positioned to refocus the agency's attention on its core missions and responsibilities.

This is welcome news for the region. As marketer for the enormous federal hydropower system in the Columbia River Basin and operator of the majority of high-voltage electric transmission in the Pacific Northwest, BPA plays an outsized role in the region's economic and environmental health. And the BPA Administrator plays an outsized role in the agency's operations because the Administrator is clothed with broad powers nearly unparalleled in other federal agencies.

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Eric Christensen to Speak at 19th Annual Buying & Selling Electric Power Conference

January 7, 2014

Please join us on January 13 and 14, 2014, for the 19th Annual Conference on Buying and Selling Electric Power in the West. The conference brings together leading energy attorneys, expert consultants, industry executives, government officials, and many others to discuss cutting-edge issues affecting the electric industry in the West.

On January 14, Eric Christensen, Chairman of GTH's Energy, Telecommunications and Utilities practice group will present a lecture on Columbia River Treaty, the current status of the treaty, and how future changes are likely to affect electric power production and transmission in the Pacific Northwest.

We look forward to seeing you there.

Cajun Christmas Surprise: Louisiana Electric Cooperative Successfully Defends NERC Deregistration

December 20, 2013

Yesterday the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission ("FERC") reaffirmed its July order (discussed here) ordering the North American Electric Reliability Corporation ("NERC") to remove Southeast Louisiana Electric Cooperative Association ("SLECA") from its registry of entities subject to electric reliability regulation. Barring appeal by FERC, SLECA is the first small utility company to successfully deregister and thereby to remove itself from often onerous reliability compliance burdens.

In 2008, SLECA voluntarily registered with NERC as a "Distribution Provider" and a "Load-Serving Entity," thereby becoming obligated to comply with a significant number of NERC Reliability Standards. Later, SLECA realized it had registered in error and sought to remove itself from the NERC registry. NERC refused to deregister SLECA. SLECA appealed NERC's decision to FERC, and FERC in July rejected NERC's position and concluded that SLECA should not be registered, primarily because it is not "directly connected to" the Bulk Electric System, as required by the NERC Statement of Compliance Registry Criteria ("SCRC").

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With ISO Vote, Energy Imbalance Market Begins to Take Shape

November 24, 2013

The California Independent System Operator's ("Cal-ISO") Board of Governors recently voted to move forward with a proposed Energy Imbalance Market ("EIM"), with the aim of encouraging Balancing Authority Areas ("BAAs") from across the West to participate in real-time energy imbalance market operated by the ISO. The market design approved by the Cal-ISO Board of Governors is scheduled to begin operation in October 2014. Consistent with an earlier agreement, PacifiCorp and the Cal-ISO would be the initial participants, but the market design approved last week is meant encourage the West's other BAAs to join the EIM. Ultimately, the aim is to create optimal real-time dispatch of generation resources across the EIM footprint, and thereby to reduce dispatch costs and improve the region's ability to integrate variable renewable resources like wind and solar into the electric system.

Under the Cal-ISO's plan, the EIM will be integrated into the Cal-ISO's real-time market. The ISO is now in the process of implementing a real-time market featuring 15-minute scheduling and five-minute dispatch. This market is being developed in response to the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's ("FERC") Order No. 764, which, among other measures, required adoption of 15-minute scheduling as a means to improve integration variable renewable resources such as wind and solar. The ISO plans to implement this new market structure in the spring of 2014, and will use this structure as the basis of the EIM. Balancing Authorities participating in the EIM will then be able to voluntarily offer resources into the EIM and the ISO will use its 15-minute scheduling and five-minute dispatch programs to efficiently dispatch balancing resources and transfers between balancing authorities across the EIM/ISO footprint. Participants will also submit schedules 75 minutes before the operating hour. These will serve as the load forecast and the base schedule against which balancing resources will be dispatched.

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Okanagan Odyssey Goes On: Washington Supreme Court to Review Case Involving Condemnation of State Lands for Transmission Right of Way

November 12, 2013

The long litigation road walked by Okanogan County PUD to build a short transmission line has just gotten a bit longer. On November 7, the Washington Supreme Court granted review of a Court of Appeals decision concluding that Washington's Public Utility Districts have statutory authority to condemn state school lands if those lands have not been withdrawn for a particular purpose. As explained here, this is the latest development in Okanagan PUD's attempt to build a segment of lower-voltage transmission line covering roughly 35 miles between Pateros and Twisp. The PUD started planning the line in 1996 in order to maintain reliable electric service in Okanogan County.

The Supreme Court will review the Appeals Court's determination that Washington's PUD statute allows Okanogan PUD to condemn state school trust lands by authorizing PUDs to "condemn . . . public and private property . . . including . . . school lands" for transmission lines and other facilities "necessary or convenient" for the PUD to carry out its statutory purposes and the Department of Natural Resource's countervailing argument, based on its own statute, that school trust lands are not subject to condemnation. The question is important not just to PUDs, but also to other Washington municipalities such as cities, towns, and Port Districts, all of which have similar statutory condemnation authority. The Court will hear oral argument in late February of 2014, with a decision likely following several months thereafter.

If you have any questions about the Court of Appeals opinion discussed in this post, the Washington PUD statutes, condemnation, or Washington real property law, please contact a member of GTH's Energy, Telecommunications, and Utilities practice group or Environment & Natural Resources practice group. These practice groups are consistently recognized as among the best, both nationally and in the Pacific Northwest. In addition, our Real Estate & Land Use practice group is recognized as one of the region's best and our partner Warren Daheim, who specializes in condemnation and eminent domain matters, was recently recognized as the best lawyer in the South Puget Sound region by South Sound Magazine.

End of a Litigation Era? Ninth Circuit Upholds Bonneville Power's Residential Exchange Settlement

October 29, 2013

The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit on Monday approved a Bonneville Power Administration settlement of the "Residential Exchange" litigation, which may finally bring a few years of peace to a decades-long legal war over the distribution of benefits from the low-cost resources of the federally-owned hydroelectric dams on the Columbia River system. The Ninth Circuit's opinion rejects a number of challenges to the settlement under the Northwest Power Act, putting to rest most questions about the Residential Exchange for the settlement's duration, through 2028. (Association of Public Agency Customers v. Bonneville Power Administration, No. 11-73178 (issued Oct. 28, 2013)).

The Residential Exchange is the result of a "grand bargain" between Bonneville's public agency customers and the region's investor-owned utilities ("IOUs"), which was encapsulated in Sections 5(c) and 7(b) of the Northwest Power Act of 1980. The Residential Exchange was intended to allow the IOUs a share of the benefits of low-cost power from the federal hydroelectric system. The language of the Act is quite turgid, but at base, the Exchange provides the residential and small farm customers of the IOUs with a cash subsidies from Bonneville. But those benefits are subject to a "ceiling," set forth in Section 7(b)(2). The 7(b)(2) rate ceiling is the keystone of the "grand bargain," and is intended to protect Bonneville's public customers, who pay for most costs of the Residential Exchange as an element of their wholesale power rates, by ensuring that their rates are no higher than they would have been had the Residential Exchange not been enacted. Rather than a direct sale of power, the Exchange is a paper transaction in which the IOUs "exchange" power with Bonneville, and receive a cash payment from Bonneville which is calculated as the difference between the IOU's average power cost ("Average System Cost" in Bonneville-speak) and Bonneville's wholesale rate, as adjusted in accordance with the rate cap and other requirements of Section 7 (the "PF Exchange Rate"). The IOUs are then obligated to pass this cash payment through to their residential and small farm customers through rate reductions for these customer classes.

Continue reading "End of a Litigation Era? Ninth Circuit Upholds Bonneville Power's Residential Exchange Settlement" »

Revised Draft I-937 Rules Suggest Significant Changes in Energy Conservation Compliance

October 8, 2013

On October 4, the Washington Department of Commerce's Office of Energy issued a "Stakeholder Discussion Draft" of revisions to the Washington Administrative Code provisions governing compliance with Initiative 937 ("I-937") for Washington's consumer-owned electric utilities. While many of the revisions are intended simply to update the regulations to reflect recent statutory changes, the Office of Energy also proposes several changes that could complicate compliance for utilities attempting to demonstrate that they have met I-937's strict energy conservation requirements. Comments are due on the Stakeholder Discussion Draft by October 25 and a workshop will be held on October 29. Although no specific deadline has been set, it is anticipated that final regulations will be issued by the end of 2013.

In addition to creating a Renewable Portfolio Standard for all Washington utilities with more than 25,000 customers, I-937 also requires those utilities to identify all "achievable cost-effective conservation potential," and to publish a plan every two years that identifies a conservation target and achieves that target. Washington's consumer-owned utilities must then submit to periodic audits demonstrating that they have achieved their conservation targets. The proposed regulations, if adopted, would create two potentially far-reaching changes to the regulations governing calculation of conservation goals and achievements.

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Federal Court Decision Illustrates Hazards of FERC-Jurisdictional Markets in the Pacific Northwest

October 7, 2013

The U.S. District Court for the District of Maryland last week issued an opinion striking down a "contract for differences" designed to ensure an adequate long-term power supply. The decision underscores some of the pitfalls that may be arise from creation of an "Energy Imbalance Market" ("EIM") or similar FERC-jurisdictional "centralized" markets here in the Pacific Northwest. PPL Energy Plus, LLC v. Nazarian, D. Md. No. MJG-12-1286 (issued Sept. 30, 2013).

The case arises from the struggles of the Maryland Public Service Commission ("MPSC") to address long-term power supplies in Maryland, particularly in constrained areas of the PJM market. The MPSC was concerned that in PJM -- the regional transmission organization ("RTO") that operates electric markets in the mid-Atlantic region, where prices are set based upon fluctuating Locational Marginal Price -- fails to provide adequate incentives for construction long-term power supplies. To address this problem, the MPSC approved a "contract for differences" between the local supplier and a generation developer. The contract creates a mechanism that effectively ensures a stable long-term price for generation by compensating the generation owner when short-term locational prices fall below the long-term guaranteed price.

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City of Palo Alto Issues RFP For Renewable Energy

September 16, 2013

The City of Palo Alto, California, last week issued an RFP for renewable energy. The request calls for non-escalating contracts for periods of between 5 and 30 years. The City intends to contract for 20 GWh to 60 GHw per year. Despite the constitutional cloud hanging over such requirements, the RFP includes a preference for projects within California, although projects with delivery points within the Western Electricity Coordinating Council will be considered. Responses are due by October 9, 2013.

Join GTH at the annual APPA Legal Seminar in Seattle

August 28, 2013

Please join us at the American Public Power Association's Legal Seminar here in Seattle. The Legal Seminar is one of the largest gatherings of its kind, annually attracting hundreds of public power attorneys from across the country. This year's seminar will be October 20-23.

We're pleased to announced that GTH attorneys Don Cohen and Eric Christensen will both be making presentations at the conference. Don will be co-leading a pre-conference seminar on pole attachment issues. Don is representing Pacific County (Washington) PUD in an extended dispute with large telecommunications providers involving pole attachment rates charged by the PUD.

Eric Christensen will be co-leader of a NERC Compliance Issues Roundtable, which will address the current state of regulation in the evolving world of mandatory reliability standards under Section 215 of the Federal Power Act. Eric will also present a talk entitled "Separating 'Transporter Psychosis' from 'Phaser Blast': The Washington Supreme Court's Decision Rejecting Nuisance Claims Based on Electromagnetic Field Exposoure," which will analyze the Court's treatment of scientific evidence in Lakey v. Puget Sound Energyand what it portends for similar claims involving, for example, "wind turbine syndrome" and exposure to radio waves from "smart" meters.